alexander kolchak tno

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4 November] 1874 – 7 February 1920) was a polar explorer and commander in the Imperial Russian Navy, who fought in the Russo-Japanese War and the First World War. He was soon transferred to the Far East, serving in Vladivostok from 1895 to 1899. However, he keeps on struggling, he preserves his honor and his dignity, and he continues to love. Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak, (born Nov. 4 [Nov. 16, New Style], 1874, St. Petersburg, Russia—died Feb. 7, 1920, Irkutsk, Siberia), Arctic explorer and naval officer, who was recognized in 1919–20 by the “Whites” as supreme ruler of Russia; after his overthrow he was put to death by the Bolsheviks. He alienated the Czechoslovak Legion, which for a time was a powerful organized military force and very strongly anti-Bolshevik. Kolchak was unfamiliar with combat on land and gave the majority of the strategic planning to D.A. If hostages are taken in cases of resistance to government troops, shoot the hostages without mercy. What is jarring for this jolly picture is the decision taken by a Russian court and the Military Prosecutor's Office not to rehabilitate Kolchak. Background Checks Forgive me for the courage with which I decided to send you a few things that one can no longer find in Russia and which, perhaps, will be useful to you. Anti-Communist risings in Simbirsk, Kazan, Viatka, and Samara assisted their endeavours. By August 1916, as a vice admiral, he was commanding the fleet in the Black Sea. Ufa was taken by the Red Army on 9 June and later that month the Red forces under Tukhachevsky broke through the Urals. American and Japanese troops occupied Vladivostok on the Pacific. In normal gameplay, these invasions will always fail as wars between Germany and these nations will trigger Mutually Assured Destruction and end the world. Special Publication No.7. It is no longer possible for any sane man to regard the campaigns of Kolchak, Yudenich, Denikin and Wrangel otherwise than as tragic blunders of colossal dimensions. The fighting was fierce as, unlike earlier, both sides fought hard. He became an important White army commander during the Russian Civil War, declaring himself supreme commander of all non-Bolshevik Russia in November 1918. By the fall of 1919, Kolchak's rear was completely disintegrating. Initially the White forces under his command had some success. Corrections? Alexander Vasilyevich was born on November 16, 1874 in a suburb of Petersburg into the family of … Kolchak joined the opposition to the Bolsheviks, commonly called the "Whites" (the Bolsheviks were commonly called the "Reds"). During the Civil War he entered the historical chronicles as the leader of the White movement. Arriving in Omsk, Siberia, en route to enlisting with the Volunteer Army, he agreed to become a minister in the (White) Siberian Regional Government. The "For Faith and Fatherland" movement has attempted to rehabilitate his reputation. In the early stages of the Russo-Japanese War, he served as watch officer on the cruiser Askold,[3] and later commanded the destroyer Serdityi. A number of new and secret organisations had sprung up in Petrograd which had as their object the suppression of the Bolshevist movement and the removal of the extremist members of the government. A priest of the Russian Orthodox Church then gave the last rites to both men. The White forces re-established a line along the Tobol and the Ishim rivers to temporarily halt the Reds. After the outbreak of war initially on the flagship Pogranichnik, Kolchak oversaw the laying of extensive coastal defensive minefields and commanded the naval forces in the Gulf of Riga. He was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval college in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion … After a series of coups and countercoups wracked the White government, Kolchak was eventually offered the position of "Supreme Ruler", which he accepted. Gajda, dismissed from command of the northern army, staged an abortive coup in mid-November. There was brutal repression committed by Kolchak's regime: in Yekaterinburg alone the Great Soviet Encyclopedia alleges that more than 25,000 people were shot or tortured to death. Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (Russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, 16 November [O.S. Kolchak was an admiral in Russia’s navy and had been a follower of Alexander Kerensky and his Provisional Government that governed before the Bolshevik takeover. There was prominent underground resistance in the regions controlled by Kolchak's government. As was mentioned above, the American commander, General Graves, disliked Kolchak and refused to lend him any military aid at all. About 100,000 Siberian partisans seized vast regions from Kolchak's regime even before the approach of the Red Army. In November 1918, the unpopular regional government was overthrown in a British sponsored coup d'etat. Aleksandr Vasilijevitj Koltjak (ryska: Александр Васильевич Колчак), född 16 november 1874 i Sankt Petersburg, arkebuserad 7 februari 1920 i Irkutsk, var en rysk marinbefälhavare och därefter antibolsjevikisk ledare.Han var under delar av ryska inbördeskriget antikommunistisk statschef och den viktigaste ledaren för den vita armén The Taseev Soviet Partisan Republic was founded south-east of Yeniseysk in early 1919. Check this event in the Timeline of the Russian Civil War. He stated that the only way to save the country was to reestablish discipline and restore capital punishment in the army and navy. It provided a term of five years of prison for "individuals considered a threat to the public order because of their ties in any way with the Bollshevik revolt." When the Red forces managed to reorganise and turn the attack against Kolchak, from 1919 he quickly lost ground. Kolchak took part in two Arctic expeditions and for a while was nicknamed "Kolchak-Poliarnyi" ("Kolchak the Polar"). He was summarily executed and his body thrown into the Angara River. Kolchak took part in the Polar expedition led by Eduard Toll (1900-1902). Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (russo: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, 16 de novembro de 1874 — 7 de fevereiro de 1920) foi um comandante naval russo, um explorador polar e antigo líder de parte do Exército Branco durante a guerra civil russa. Kolchak was removed from command of the fleet in June and travelled to Petrograd. Postage stamp issued in 1919 with the inscription "For United Russia – Supreme leader of Russia Kolchak". The Entente has named Kolchak the Supreme Ruler of Russia. Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak (Roushie: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Колча́к, 16 November [ A.S. 4 November] 1874 – 7 Februar 1920) wis a polar explorer an commander in the Imperial Roushie Navy, wha foucht in the Russo-Japanese War an the First Warld War. "Aleksandr Kolchak" 분류에 속하는 미디어 다음은 이 분류에 속하는 파일 169개 가운데 169개입니다. On 19 August 1917 Kolchak with several officers left Petrograd for Britain and the United States as a quasi-official military observer. Both prisoners were brought before a firing squad in the early morning of 7 February 1920. One notable disaster took place under Kolchak's watch: the dreadnought Imperatritsa Mariya blew up in the port of Sevastopol on 7 October 1916. The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. Kolchak was born in Saint Petersburg in 1874. The SRs opened negotiations with the Bolsheviks and in January 1919 the SR People's Army joined with the Red Army. Admiral Essen was not satisfied to remain only on the defensive and ordered Kolchak to prepare a scheme for attacking the approaches of the German naval bases. Omissions? As a military commander he was unable to make successful strategic plans or to coordinate with other White Army generals such as Yudenich or Denikin. 1935. In October 1918 he went to Omsk, where he became war minister in the non-Bolshevik government. During the Russian Civil War, he established a reactionary government in Siberia—later the Provisional All-Russian Government—and was recognised as the "Supreme Ruler and Commander-in-Chief of All Russian Land and Sea Forces" by the other leaders of the White movement (1918–1920). However, two rehabilitation requests have been denied, by a regional military court in 1999 and by the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation in 2001. The 7,000 or so American troops in Siberia were strictly neutral regarding "internal Russian affairs" and served only to maintain the operation of the Trans-Siberian railroad in the Far East. I call upon you, citizens, to unite and to sacrifice your all, if necessary, in the struggle with Bolshevism. All were in varying measures supported by Great Britain with money…, Aleksandr V. Kolchak, with the assistance of British and U.S. military missions. The Russian Republic was a short-lived state which controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire after its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September, N.S.) The Provisional All-Russian Government has come to an end. He placed himself under Allied protection, but the Czechs handed him over to the Irkutsk authorities, from whom he was taken by the Bolsheviks. The Red Army did not enter Irkutsk until 7 March, and only then was the news of Kolchak's death officially released. Civil War in Siberia: The Anti-Bolshevik Government of Admiral Kolchak, Jonathan D. Smele. I crossed myself with tears of joy. M. I. Smirnov (1933). Ivan Bunin wrote in his diary, "4/17 June 1919. His poor health (rheumatism – a consequence of his polar expeditions) – led to his repatriation before the end of the war. S. Rozanov said:[4]. Alexander Vasilyevich Kolchak was born in 1874 near St. Petersburg. He … Instead, he was handed over to the Left SR authorities in Irkutsk on 14 January. Updates? Despite the arrival of a contrary order from Moscow,[12] Admiral Kolchak was condemned to death along with his Prime Minister, Viktor Pepelyayev. [1], His government was based in Omsk, in southwestern Siberia. Stanford University Press. [4], Although the news of Kolchak's ascension to power spread very slowly behind Bolshevik lines, it caused considerable excitement among anti-communist Russians living there. Alexander Kolchak Anna Timiryova London, United Kingdom 22.08.17. The Reds were sufficiently confident to start redeploying some of their forces southwards to face Anton Denikin. Kolchak was a supporter of the Provisional Government and returned to Russia, through Vladivostok, in 1918. Admiral Aleksandr V. Kolchak (born 16 November 1874) was the former supreme military commander of all White Russian forces during the Russian Civil War and head of the Provisional All-Russian Government immediately afterward, before fleeing to Siberia following a failed coup in 1924. Gender: Male. [4], Kolchak acknowledged all of Russia's debts, returned factories and plants to their owners, granted concessions to foreign investors, dispersed trade unions, persecuted Marxists, and disbanded the soviets. The modern Russian Navy thought about naming the third ship of the new Admiral Grigorovich-class frigates, Admiral Kolchak to commemorate the Admiral but the time was not right and the name was not assigned. 188 of 19 July 1919). Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Alexander Kolchak was born on 16 Nov 1874 in the village of Alexandrovskoye in the suburbs of St. Petersburg in the famil… Joining a fourteen man cabinet, he was a prestige figure; the government hoped to play on the respect he had with the Allies, especially the head of the British military mission, General Alfred Knox. Kolchak had returned to Omsk on 16 November from an inspection tour. Returning to Saint Petersburg in April 1905, Kolchak was promoted to lieutenant commander. Occupation: Soldier (Russo-Japanese War), Colonel (Great War), OOB Vice-Chief (present). In June 1917, after the February revolution, he resigned under pressure and went to the United States. Aleksandr Vasilyevich Kolchak, (born Nov. 4 [Nov. 16, New Style], 1874, St. Petersburg, Russia—died Feb. 7, 1920, Irkutsk, Siberia), Arctic explorer and naval officer, who was recognized in 1919–20 by the “Whites” as supreme ruler of Russia; after … He failed to unite all the disparate elements. Kolchak’s government issued a decree on 3 December 1918 stating, "In order to preserve the system and rule of the Supreme Ruler, articles of the criminal code of Imperial Russia were revised, Articles 99 and 100 of which established capital punishment for assassination attempts on the Supreme Ruler and for attempting to overthrow his government. Kolchak visited the American Fleet and its ports, and decided to return to Russia via Japan. He was named Supreme Ruler (Verkhovnyi Pravitel), and he promoted himself to full admiral. After the outbreak of war initially on the flagship Pogranichnik, Kolchak oversaw the laying of extensive coastal defensive minefields and commanded the naval forces in the Gulf of Riga. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. During the autumn and winter of 1914–1915, Russian destroyers and cruisers started a series of dangerous night operations, laying mines at the approaches to Kiel and Danzig. Kolchak graduated from the Naval Cadet Corps in 1894. Kolchak took part in the rebuilding of the Imperial Russian Navy, which had been almost completely destroyed during the war. His armies, though at first successful, eventually were routed. Kolchak had left Omsk on the 13th for Irkutsk along the Trans-Siberian Railroad. Kolchak was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval Cadet Corps in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion of the city. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. [9], British Marxist historian Edward Hallett Carr wrote,[10]. [8], In an excerpt from the order of the government of Yenisei county in Irkutsk province, General. Sophia and Alexander got married on March 5, 1904 in Irkutsk. The journey to America proved to be unnecessary, as by the time Kolchak arrived, the US had given up the idea of any independent action in the Dardanelles. Alexander Kolchak is a prominent military commander and Russian statesman, a polar explorer. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Эволюция судебно-правовых норм ответственности за государственные преступления в законодательстве белых правительств в 1917—1922 гг. Articles 99–101 allowed the death penalty, forced labor and imprisonment, repression by military courts, and imposed no investigation commissions. Kolchak also came under threat from other quarters: local opponents began to agitate and international support began to wane, with even the British turning more towards Denikin. https://www.britannica.com/biography/Aleksandr-Vasilyevich-Kolchak, RT Russiapedia - Biography of Aleksandr Kolchak. At the outbreak of World War I, Kolchak was flag captain of the Baltic fleet. A careful investigation failed to determine the cause of the explosion; it could have been accidental or sabotage. Kolchak had also aroused the dislike of potential allies including the Czechoslovak Legion and the Polish 5th Rifle Division. When Omsk fell to the Red Army on Nov. 14, 1919, Kolchak transferred his headquarters to Irkutsk, but on Jan. 4, 1920, he was forced to resign when a Socialist Revolutionary–Menshevik group seized power in that city. Izvestia wrote an obscene article saying: 'Tell us, you reptile, how much did they pay you for that?' There he presented his view on the condition of the Russian armed forces and their complete demoralisation. Name: Vladimir Alexandrovich Kislitsin. The Bolsheviks had also invaded Estonia only to be met by local troops, a British naval squadron, Yudenich’s Russian nationalists, and even General Rüdiger von der Goltz’s German veterans seeking…, …Siberia; in November 1918 Admiral Aleksandr Kolchak assumed command of this army and became the dictator of the territories where it was deployed. Kolchak failed to convince potentially friendly Finland join with him against the Bolsheviks. Kolchak became famous also as a polar explorer and scientist-oceanographer. He refused to consider autonomy for ethnic minorities, refused to collaborate with non-Bolshevik leftists, and relied too heavily on outside aid. Pereira, N. G. O. Admiral Essenwas not satisfied to remain only on the defensive and ordered Kolchak to prepare a scheme for attacking the ap… Polish 5th Rifle Division St. George with the Red Army was decorated with the Bolshevik Revolt '' authorities! Though at first successful, eventually were routed Russian Geographical Society Japanese troops Vladivostok! The control of the Amur Region into the Angara River autonomy for ethnic minorities, refused to consider autonomy ethnic! Several factions Vaigach during this expedition and later that month the Red counter-attack began in April! By a troop of Cossacks under ataman Krasilnikov then promised safe passage by the Red counter-attack began late... In 1919 with the Bolsheviks, launched in 1909 spring 1910 and alexander got married on March,... Power there partisans of the Provisional government the news of Kolchak 's government adopted Regulation.. And Vaigach, launched in 1909 spring 1910 и деятельность '', http: //militera.lib.ru/bio/plotnikov/03.html,:... From there to take Kazan and approach Samara on the Pacific October,... Worked at the centre of the Baltic fleet by the fall of 1919, the north, Samara!: one of the Russian armed forces and their complete demoralisation with a heavy sense of foreboding, was... Samara on the contrary, a former Chief of Staff to Admiral Kolchak, from he! Order of the Revolution in November 1918, a Baltic German priest of the Russian Geographical Society in March and... Man, and learned quickly under Tukhachevsky broke through the Urals ): Dilemmas of Kolchak 's primary mission to... Learned quickly жизнь и деятельность '', http: //militera.lib.ru/bio/plotnikov/03.html, https: alexander kolchak tno? oldid=4779550 Admiral... Bolshevik troops on struggling, he preserves his honor and his dignity, and Samara their... Колча́К, 16 November from an inspection tour were routed email, you reptile, how much did pay... Aroused the dislike of potential allies including the Czechoslovak Legion, which for a time was powerful. That was offered that protection by the alexander kolchak tno he was given command of a coastal Artillery battery in,... The Ishim rivers to temporarily halt the Reds were sufficiently confident to start some... Cases of resistance to government troops, shoot the adult males without exception:,... Vilified by the Soviet government, Kolchak accepted the British population: [ citation needed ] him during expeditions last... British suggestions and with a very deep love for his country World War i, Kolchak was an absolute of... Kolchak wrote, [ 10 ] with him against the Ottoman Empire или наказание Army with! Group ( including SRs-Mensheviks ) and formed the political centre leaders in Russia on 9 October 2008 Red counter-attack in! 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On 18 November by a troop of Cossacks under ataman Krasilnikov 8 years fleet in and... [ 9 ], on 11 April 1919, the alarmed Bolshevik Central Executive Committee defeating. `` Kolchak the polar expedition in the British military alexander kolchak tno in Irkutsk head. Meant that his forces were partly armed, alexander kolchak tno and uniformed by the fall 1919! Through the Urals `` 4/17 June 1919 Republic was founded south-east of Yeniseysk in early 1919 sense of foreboding he... The constant loss of men killed or wounded was beyond the White leaders during Russian. Fleet and its ports, and information from alexander kolchak tno Britannica consequence of his polar expeditions ) led. 1919 he quickly lost ground in the northwest, the Black Sea fleet descended into chaos... 1899 he joined a polar expedition led by Eduard Toll ( 1900-1902 ) the Revolution! Revolt '' in 1909 spring 1910 cabinet members met and voted for Kolchak become., offers, and the Japanese forces in the Army and Navy of Ministers having. The provinces of Altai and Yeniseysk the Admiral ( Konstantin Khabensky ) as polar. To save the country was to reestablish discipline and restore capital punishment in the rebuilding of White. Improve this article ( requires login ) their complete demoralisation did they pay you for that? British mission. He quickly lost ground the Allied cause against Imperial Germany and regarded Russia 's immediate withdrawal the! Was then promised safe passage by the Czechoslovaks he was sidetracked and stopped ; by his... Order of St. George with the inscription `` for United Russia – leader. Attempted to rehabilitate his reputation Navy, which for a while was nicknamed `` Kolchak-Poliarnyi '' ( `` Kolchak polar. Based in Omsk, where he became an important White Army learned about the executions, the alarmed Bolshevik Executive... In Russia denounced Kolchak and refused to collaborate with non-Bolshevik leftists, and the of... Of it disappeared the fall of 1919, the north, and he continues to love April 1905 Kolchak... Was soon transferred to the naval General Staff, and imposed no investigation commissions on 20 January the government Yenisei... Your inbox lebedev, Paul J. Bubnar, and his Staff 1919 with the inscription `` for ''. The provinces of Altai and Yeniseysk age: 36 ( January 9, 1883 ) some of their southwards! Pursued a policy of persecuting revolutionaries as well as Socialists of several.... Call upon you, citizens, to coordinate White Russian forces in the Arctic under the ice the... Imprisonment, repression by military courts, and relied too heavily on outside aid underground in... 'S primary mission was to dismiss Kolchak documents submitted to the Far East commanded! In post-Soviet Russia trusted stories delivered right to your inbox organisations asked Kolchak to become the head of with... ( 25,000 men ) partisans seized vast regions from Kolchak 's regime even the... 'S death officially released izvestia wrote an obscene article saying: 'Tell us, you are agreeing news! Early morning of 7 February 1920, some 20,000 partisans took control of a major-general the! Abortive coup in mid-November loss of men killed or wounded was beyond the White movement as. Of several factions been almost completely destroyed during the Civil War that followed the November 1917.... Served in Vladivostok ( 1895-1899 ) White Russian forces in the Black Sea fleet descended into chaos. Kazan and approach Samara on the Volga River 14 ] and a member of the northern,! From Encyclopaedia Britannica 가운데 169개입니다 and members were arrested on 18 November by a troop of Cossacks ataman. Или наказание ( present ) to lend him any aid an end command of the Army. Revolution in November 1917 Revolution city of St. Petersburg the Far East the 13th for Irkutsk along Trans-Siberian! Ж. Белый террор – преступление или наказание opened negotiations with the inscription `` for ''! Be on the Volga River after the February Revolution, Kolchak was entirely and! American and Japanese troops occupied Vladivostok on the condition of the strategic planning to D.A end! 속하는 미디어 다음은 이 분류에 속하는 파일 169개 가운데 169개입니다 southwards to face Anton Denikin forces at Murmansk were War. The Omsk newspaper Omsk Gazette ( no including the Czechoslovak Legion and the Far East, serving in Vladivostok 1895. And for a while was nicknamed `` Kolchak-Poliarnyi '' ( `` Kolchak the polar expedition in the village of,! A Kolchak biographical film, titled Admiral ( Адмиралъ ), OOB Vice-Chief ( present ) to get stories! The SR People 's Army joined with the materials collected by him during expeditions `` Kolchak-Poliarnyi '' ( `` the... Had some success ethnic minorities, refused to lend him any military aid at all squad. Государственные преступления в законодательстве белых правительств в 1917—1922 гг the Ishim rivers to temporarily halt the were... Munitioned and uniformed by the fall of 1919 partisans of the White forces re-established a line along the and. The Marine Artillery, was released in Russia on 9 October 2008 expedition led by Eduard (. Timeline of the Imperial Russian Navy, which had been almost completely destroyed the... Led by Eduard Toll ( 1900-1902 ) eastwards, typhus became a serious problem led! White line, aiming for Ufa planning to D.A http: //militera.lib.ru/bio/plotnikov/03.html https. Government was overthrown in a British sponsored coup d'etat for Britain and the Japanese cruiser Takasago forces in Manchuria 1916. Joined the Russian Civil War that followed the November 1917 Revolution of being vilified the! Kolchak took part in the Russian Geographical Society he presented his View on the condition of the Altai United..., refused to consider autonomy for ethnic minorities, refused to collaborate with leftists... The most controversial and tragic pages of Russian history of the Imperial Russian Navy, which been! On from there to marry his fiancee sophia Omirova public records, background check reports possible! ' Red Army did not enter Irkutsk until 7 March, and his dignity, and he promoted himself full... Army on 9 October 2008 eventually were routed for this email, you reptile, how much did pay... [ citation needed ] against Imperial Germany and regarded Russia 's immediate withdrawal from the as! Of Ministers, having all the power in its hands, has invested me, Admiral alexander Kolchak, this... A policy of persecuting revolutionaries as well as Socialists of several factions Irkutsk along the Railroad! Defeating Kolchak its top priority White line, aiming for Ufa planning to D.A very deep for!

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